1) IBAfect (cationic lipids) condenses DNA to compact structures within DNA/RNA/lipid-complexes.
2) These positively charged DNA/RNA/lipid-complexes bind to and enter the cell by endocytosis.
3) The DNA/RNA/lipid-complex acts as a "proton sponge" that buffers the endosomal pH, since the hydrophilic unit contains several sites which can be protonated.
4) Continuous proton influx induces osmotic swelling and rupture. As a result, nucleic acids are released simultaneously from the DNA/RNA/lipid-complex by Progressive Proton-assisted Lipid Layer Disintegration (P.P.L.L.D.).
5) Nucleic acids are released into the cytosol.